Family therapist, Salvador Minuchin
study the human mind and human behavior. Research psychologists investigate the physical, cognitive, emotional, or social aspects of human behavior. Psychologists in health service fields provide mental health care in
, schools, or private settings. Psychologists employed in applied settings, such as business, industry, government, or nonprofit organizations, provide training, conduct research, design organizational systems, and act as advocates for psychology.
About 34 percent of psychologists are self-employed.
In 2006 there were 152,000 clinical, counseling or school psychologists in the United States.
Clinical psychologists constitute the largest specialty - work most often in counseling centers, independent or group practices,
, or clinics. They help mentally and emotionally distressed clients adjust to life and may assist medical and surgical patients in dealing with illnesses or injuries. Some clinical psychologists work in physical rehabilitation settings, treating patients with spinal cord injuries, chronic pain or illness, stroke, arthritis, or neurological conditions. Others help people deal with personal crisis, such as divorce or the death of a loved one.
Clinical psychologists often interview patients and give diagnostic tests. They may provide individual, family, or group psychotherapy and may design and implement behavior modification programs. Some clinical psychologists collaborate with physicians and other specialists to develop and implement treatment and intervention programs that patients can understand and comply with. Other clinical psychologists work in universities and medical schools, where they train graduate students in the delivery of mental health and behavioral medicine services. Some administer community mental health programs.
Areas of specialization within clinical psychology include health psychology, neuropsychology, and geropsychology. Health psychologists
study how biological, psychological, and social factors affect health and illness. They promote healthy living and disease prevention through counseling, and they focus on how patients adjust to illnesses and treatments and view their quality of life. Neuropsychologists
study the relation between the brain and behavior. They often work in stroke and head injury programs.
deal with the special problems faced by the elderly. The emergence and growth of these specialties reflects the increasing participation of psychologists in direct services to special patient populations.
Often, clinical psychologists consult with other medical personnel regarding the best treatment for patients, especially treatment that includes
. Clinical psychologists generally are not permitted to prescribe medication to treat patients; only
and other medical doctors may prescribe most medications. However, two States-Louisiana and New Mexico-currently allow appropriately trained clinical psychologists to prescribe medication with some limitations.
Counseling psychologists use various techniques, including interviewing and testing, to advise people on how to deal with problems of everyday living, including career or work problems and problems faced in different stages of life. They work in settings such as university counseling centers,
, and individual or group practices.
work with students in early
and elementary and
. They collaborate with
, and school personnel to create safe, healthy, and supportive learning environments for all students. School psychologists address students' learning and behavioral problems, suggest improvements to classroom management strategies or
, and evaluate students with disabilities and gifted and talented students to help determine the best way to educate them. They improve teaching, learning, and socialization strategies based on their understanding of the psychology of learning environments. They also may evaluate the effectiveness of academic programs, prevention programs, behavior management procedures, and other services provided in the school setting.
Industrial-organizational psychologists apply psychological principles and research methods to the workplace in the interest of improving productivity and the quality of work-life. They also are involved in research on management and marketing problems. They screen, train, and counsel applicants for jobs, as well as perform organizational development and analysis. An industrial psychologist might work with management to reorganize the work setting in order to improve productivity or quality of life in the workplace. Industrial psychologists frequently act as consultants, brought in by management to solve a particular problem.
Developmental psychologists study the physiological, cognitive, and social development that takes place throughout life. Some specialize in behavior during infancy
, or changes that occur during maturity or old age. Developmental psychologists also may study developmental disabilities and their effects. Increasingly, research is developing ways to help elderly people remain independent as long as possible.
Social psychologists examine people's interactions with others and with the social environment. They work in organizational consultation, marketing research, systems design, or other applied psychology fields. Prominent areas of study include group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and perception.
Experimental and Research Psychologists
Experimental and research psychologists work in university and private research centers and in business, nonprofit, and governmental organizations. They study the behavior of both human beings and animals, such as rats, monkeys, and pigeons. Prominent areas of study in experimental research include motivation, thought, attention, learning and memory, sensory and perceptual processes, effects of
, and genetic and neurological factors affecting behavior.
Education and Training for Psychologists
A master's or doctoral degree, and a license, are required for most psychologists.
A doctoral degree usually is required for independent practice as a psychologist. Psychologists with a Ph.D. or Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) qualify for a wide range of teaching, research, clinical, and counseling positions in universities, health care services, elementary and secondary schools, private industry, and government. Psychologists with a doctoral degree often work in clinical positions or in private practices, but they also sometimes teach, conduct research, or carry out administrative responsibilities.
A doctoral degree generally requires five to seven years of graduate study, culminating in a dissertation based on original research. Courses in quantitative research methods, which include the use of computer-based analysis, are an integral part of graduate study and are necessary to complete the dissertation. The Psy.D. degree may be based on practical work and examinations rather than a dissertation. In clinical, counseling, and
, the requirements for the doctoral degree include at least a 1-year internship.
A specialist degree or its equivalent is required in most States for an individual to work as a school psychologist
, although a few States still credential school psychologists with masters degrees. A specialist (Ed.S.) degree in school psychology requires a minimum of three years of full-time graduate study (at least 60 graduate semester hours) and a one-year full-time internship. Because their professional practice addresses educational and mental health components of students' development, school psychologists' training includes coursework in both
People with a masters degree in psychology may work as industrial-organizational psychologists. They also may work as psychological assistants under the supervision of doctoral-level psychologists and may conduct research or psychological evaluations. A masters degree in psychology requires at least two years of full-time graduate study. Requirements usually include practical experience in an applied setting and a masters thesis based on an original research project.
A bachelors degree in psychology qualifies a person to assist psychologists and other professionals in community mental health centers, vocational rehabilitation offices, and correctional programs. Bachelors degree holders may also work as research or administrative assistants for psychologists. Some work as technicians in related fields, such as marketing research. Many find employment in other areas, such as sales, service, or business management.
Licensure for Psychologists
Psychologists in dependent practice or those who offer any type of patient care-including clinical, counseling, and
must meet certification or licensing requirements in all States and the District of Columbia. Licensing laws vary by State and by type of position and require licensed or certified psychologists to limit their practice to areas in which they have developed professional competence through training and experience. Clinical and counseling psychologists usually need a doctorate in psychology, an approved internship, and one to two years of professional experience. In addition, all States require that applicants pass an examination. Most State licensing boards administer a standardized test, and many supplement that with additional oral or essay questions. Some States require continuing education for renewal of the license.
Education Required for Counselors and therapists
, as it relates to mental health.
A masters degree generally is required to become a licensed counselor.
In 2006 there were 25,000 marriage and family counselors and 100,000 mental health counselors.
Mental health counselors
work with individuals, families, and groups to address and treat mental and emotional disorders and to promote mental health. They are trained in a variety of therapeutic techniques used to address issues, including
, addiction and
, stress, problems with self-esteem, and grief. They also help with job and career concerns, educational decisions, issues related to mental and emotional health, and family,
, marital, or other relationship problems. Mental health counselors often work closely with other mental health specialists, such as
, psychologists, clinical social workers, psychiatric nurses, and school Counselors.
Substance Abuse and Behavioral Disorder Counselors
Substance abuse and behavioral disorder counselors help people who have problems with
, drugs, gambling, and
. They counsel individuals who are addicted to drugs, helping them to identify behaviors and problems related to their addiction. Counseling can be done on an individual basis, but is frequently done in a group setting. These counselors will often also work with family members who are affected by the addictions of their loved ones. Counselors also conduct programs aimed at preventing addictions.
How to Select the Right Drug and Alcohol Rehab
Make a Success of Drug and Alcohol Rehab
Marriage and Family Therapists
Marriage and family therapists apply family systems theory, principles and techniques to individuals, families, and couples to resolve emotional conflicts. In doing so, they modify people's perceptions and behaviors, enhance communication and understanding among family members, and help to prevent family and individual crises. Marriage and family therapists also may engage in
of a non-medical nature, make appropriate referrals to psychiatric resources, perform research, and teach courses about human development and interpersonal relationships.
Other Professional Counselors
Other counseling specialties include gerontological, multicultural, and genetic counseling. A gerontological counselor provides services to elderly people and their families as they face changing lifestyles. Genetic counselors provide information and support to families who have members with birth defects or genetic disorders and to families who may be at risk for a variety of inherited conditions. These counselors identify families at risk, interpret information about the disorder, analyze inheritance patterns and risks of recurrence, and review available options with the family.
Psychologist Description page Sources
1. Counselors, (December, 2007). Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.
2. Psychologists, (December 18, 2007). Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor.
3. Psychiatrists. Bureau of Labor and Statistics, (2007). In 2006 there were approximately 22,000 psychiatrists in the United States.
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